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Back to the Basics – Wine 101 with Antiqua Tours

Guest post & photos by Sarah May Grunwald

I am a wine lover, wine snob and wine educator, but in my line of work, I often find the hardest thing to impart to my students and clients are the wine basics.  I suppose I just take wine for granted, just as many Romans take the huge amount of culture in their city for granted.  Wine is like air for me.  I can’t live without it, and not only because I like to drink it.  I am interested in the entire culture of wine.  I have had this passion since the first time I visited a winery, Wirra Wirra, in 1997 in South Australia.

Moving to Italy was an entirely different experience in terms of the world of wine.  Outside of Italy, wine is seen as some otherworldly drink, something for people with money, something to be coveted, there is a lot of money involved in the world of wine and a lot of that money is used for marketing.  But why?  After all, isn’t wine just fermented grape juice?  Yes, it is a fermented beverage, but its connection to human culture, including religion, medicine and art spans millennia.  It is more than an alcoholic drink; it is a culture in its own right.

 

Here in Italy, one can think of wine as its own food group.  It is at every table and almost every meal. Wine brings people together rather than separating them.   Italy is covered in vines and there is a huge variety of wines made.  This is due to the fact that Italy is extremely diverse in terms of topography and natural feature and the fact that the grape vine is a plant that mutates very easily and adjusts to a variety of conditions.  So firstly, you have a landscape that spans from the Alps to near Africa in the south; a landscape with extremely diverse terrain.   Then, in the scope of that landscape, there is huge amount of variety in the types of grapes use.

In Italy, wine is not for the privileged only but for all.   Even if some are not fine wines, almost every Italian knows someone who makes wine, including their own grandparents with their homemade wine.  In the fall, entire families participate in the harvest on a small plot of land to make the family wine.  These are simple and rustic wines, but it is a story that has firm roots in the Italian culture.  Even today, Italian immigrants throughout the world will make this effort.  If they no longer have a small plot of land, they will buy grapes and make wine at home.   Wine is ubiquitous to Italian culture.

When I lead a wine tour, I start with the basics, what is wine and how is it made.  Wine is made by yeasts converting the sugars present in the grape into alcohol.  Alcohol is the byproduct of this biochemical process.   Red wines are red because they are fermented with the skins; the skins give wine its color.  White wines are lighter in color because they are not fermented with the skins, hence you can have a white wine made from a dark skinned grape.  Rosè or pink wines are made by fermented with the skins for a short amount of time, giving them their pink hue.

Once we have these basics, we can talk about the sensory experience of wine, that of sight, smell and taste.   There are five tasting basics:  see, sniff, swirl, sip and savor.  Color can tell us a lot about a wine.   For example, how young or old it is or where it might be from.  When we sniff wine, we are evaluating volatile aromas that should tell us a lot more about the wine, what type of grape(s) is/are used, for example.  There are hundreds of aromas in wine, but they are NOT added.  I have been asked countless times during this phase of a tasting if the winemaker added the aromas to the wine, such as adding essential oil.  The answer is no.  The aromas we perceive are naturally occurring chemical compounds that come from the grape varietal-this means the type of grape, such as Chardonnay or Sangiovese-they can also come from the yeast fermentation.  These are called esters.  Esters are what give fruit their aromas.  Finally we have tertiary aromas and they come from aging.  What you smell in the glass should give you an indication of what you will shortly taste.  For example, if you smell a red wine and it has aromas of leather or coffee, most like the wine will have tannin, or if you are smelling grapefruit in a white wine, you can expect a fresh tasting wine.

When we taste the wine, we do not actually taste flavors.  What we perceive as flavors are actually aromas.  80% of taste is smell.  There are actually 4-some might argue – tasting sensations and they are sweet, salty, sour and the bitter.  The fifth, Umami has been described a savory, tasty or meaty. It is a Japanese word meaning good taste.  It is elusive, but a sensation that cannot be described in any other way.  And strangely enough, it can be applied to wine.  We will first notice if a wine is dry or not.  Dryness in wines should not be confused with the astringency and dry feeling in your gums from a tannic wine.  A dry wine is dry due to absence of sugar.  Wines can be dry, off dry, slightly sweet and sweet.  The sweetness or lack of it is a result of residual sugars.  We then notice the backbone of the wine, its freshness or acidity.  Without the acidity, wines will feel flabby.  It is the acidity in wine that makes wine food friendly and stimulates the appetite.   You feel freshness on the side of your tongue.  Some wines can taste salty or saline to us and bitterness is what you taste on the back of your tongue.   Now there are the flavors we perceive.  Remember, you do not actually taste them.  80% of taste is smell.  Some wines are overtly fruity; some have a very strong minerality on the palate.  This is what we call the wines finish.  Those are the flavors and sensations that linger on your palate after your swallow the wine.  In general, the longer the finish- the length of time you perceive these aromas and flavors- the better the wine.

Wines should be complex and well balanced.  A well balanced wine is a wine that has all of the elements in harmony.  One does not overpower the other.   Elements such as alcohol, acidity and tannin are evaluated when we taste wine.  Tannin is often the most confusing element in the wine tasting for new tasters.  Tannin refers to a tactile sensation in the palate which leaves a sense of dryness, especially in the gums.  It is an astringent and sometimes bitter taste that is perceived in red wines and absent in white wines.  This is not to be confused with the sensation of dryness in a wine.  Dryness is the absence of sugar and you feel that on your tongue.

So with the fundamentals now covered you may be wondering why people are so obsessed with wine. People, like myself, make a career out of it and devote hours of their day to the study and tasting of this beverage.  Why is this drink so coveted and adored?  Many former normal people have thought the same thing until they had their “A-HA” moment.  This is the moment that makes you see in tunnel vision, when you drink a glass of wine or have an experience with wine and food that leaves you breathless, makes your heart beat a little faster and makes you feel like you’ve fallen in love.  This could be drinking a Lagrein on top of a mountain in the dolomites, smelling an aroma that brings you back to your childhood, sharing wine with a friend in a medieval town in Umbria while feasting on truffles.  For many it is tactile and others it is cultural.  If you feel intimidated because someone perceives balsamic aromas with hints of rosemary in the glass of wine, don’t fret.  People actually train their nose to perceive.  It takes most people a long time to develop a “vocabulary.”  There are very few people in the world who are natural super tasters.

In my travelling experiences, the best way to get to know a culture is to eat and drink with people in the culture.  If you are in Tuscany drink Tuscan wines like Chianti Classico, but to understand the complexity of the Italian world of wine you need to step out of the Pinot Grigio-Chianti comfort zone.  There is more to Italian wine than Tuscany!  Just in the region of Lazio-the region Rome is in-there are wonderful wines to be had at great prices that evoke warm summer days by the sea, tasting local delicacies in Rome.  You can buy a lovely Frascati Superiore for about €6 to €10.  I highly suggest tasting wines from Umbria, Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Basilicata as well.

While you are in Rome, you can sample many wines from a variety of regions when you visit the local enoteca-wine bar.  Many of them have wonderful list of wines by the glass that will allow you sample wines from all over Italy.  Join a wine tasting, vineyard tour or join a market walk.  Get to know the real Italy or real Rome by tasting it.  Food and wine producers and experts are more than happy to share their knowledge with you, you just have to ask.

Cin Cin!!

 

Sarah May Grunwald comes from the sunny state of California and now resides in a country house in the Castelli Romani just outside Rome.  She is a wine educator, sommelier and tour guide who runs and owns Antiqua Tours. When she is not leading cultural and culinary tours in Rome, she is at home writing her wine blog, www.tastingrome.blogspot.com, hanging out with her Roman husband and 10 dogs and cats, in the kitchen or tending to her olive trees and garden.  

25 April 2012 Uncategorized

Coffee break in The Beehive’s neighborhood

The Beehive’s cafe offers vegetarian and organic homemade breakfast goodies – eggs, oatmeal, granola, toast, etc.  Our coffee and teas are fair trade and our milk – cow, soy and rice – are also organic.  Since everything is made to order and there is only one chef working at a time – our cafe epitomizes slow breakfast.

If you need or want a faster alternative in the morning, just a couple of blocks away from us is Bar Fondi.  They serve pastries and coffee with speed and efficiency since they cater to a lot of the B&Bs and guesthouses in the neighborhood that offer breakfast vouchers for their guests.  It’s quite a crush in the morning, but it moves quickly.

Entering Termini train station from The Beehive side is another option – VyTa bar.

There you will find pastries and coffee and at lunch and in the afternoon there are also sandwiches, salads and pizza by the slice including focaccia delivered from the excellent Roscioli bakery and cookies from the local kosher bakery, Mondo di Laura.  There’s also free wi-fi.

Other VyTa bars can be found in the central train stations of Milan, Naples and Turin.

 

 

19 April 2012 Uncategorized

How to do nothing in Rome

Guest post & photos by Toni DeBella

In my everyday life I am somewhat of an “over-planner”.  I like to know when and where I am going far in advance.  However, when it comes to spending an afternoon in Rome, I prefer to let my day just unfold instinctively and naturally.  When in Italy, I prefer to improvise.

 Sweet Nothings 

 Italians  have asay ing: “il dolce far niente” (the sweetness of doing nothing), but I wonder if it’s possible to be in one of the great capitals of the world and actually not do anything.  I am about to test the veracity of this expression and set out into the Eternal City in hopes of answering the question: Is it possible to do nothing in Rome?

 Piano, Piano (Slowly, Slowly)

Walking is one of the best ways to pass time while doing nothing special. Rome is perfectly situated for kicking around all day on its ancient, uneven cobblestones.  I didn’t have a destination in mind, nor did I bring a guidebook nor street map.  I was a blank slate, ready to improvise away!

 

Today I started out from Stazione Termini (the main train station) and walked over to and down Via Nazionale to Piazza Venezia.  Because it’s Sunday, Via dei Fori Imperiali is closed to motor vehicles allowing everyone to stroll freely from the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (also known as the Vittoriano) to the Colosseo unassaulted by honking taxis or buzzing Vespas.  A quiet walk into tranquil nothingness.  I ventured back up Via Dei Fori Imperiali, heading for parts of town undiscovered and unscheduled.

 

By zigzagging through the narrow, winding streets, I avoided the heavy foot traffic and loud buses and ambulances.  I loved translating the meanings of the beautiful and evocative street signs carved into the sides of old buildings along the way. 

 

Some streets are named for things (Vicolo dei Venti, Alley of the Winds and Via della Pace, Road of Peace), some for artisans (Via dei Cappellari, Hatmakers Street), some after famous people (Via Cesare Balbo, Via Garibaldi) and others after Cities (Via Napoli, Via Firenze).  Don’t be afraid to duck around corners and peek into alleyways – you never know what small treasure or grand masterpiece you might bump into along the way.

 

Time Flies When you are Doing Nothing

Much of Rome’s main sites are jam-packed into the historical city center, so quite a lot of territory can be covered in one afternoon.   For instance, today I encircled the Colosseum, glanced at the Roman Forum, walked along the Tevere (Tiber), waited in a long line outside a bakery in the Jewish Ghetto, “window shopped” at the Campo dei Fiori (in the past a place for flower sellers), observed artists paint on PiazzaNavona (read more about Painters in the Piazza here),

 

 

ate lunch in a centuries old portico, cruised past the Pantheon, made a wish in the Fontana di Trevi, people-watched on the steps at Piazza di Spagna, sipped espresso in front of Bernini’s statue of Triton at Piazza Barberini, marveled at one of the great intersections at the corners of Via delle Quattre Fontane and Via del Quirinale,

 

then finishedup at the famous church,Santa Maria Maggiore, where Gian Lorenzo Bernini happens to be buried.   Now I am just a few blocks from the start of my journey at Stazione Termini where I can grab my train back to Orvieto.

 

Idle in Rome?

In answer to thequestion: When in Rome, is it really possible NOT to do as the Romans do?  I don’t think so, but I wonder if perhaps one shouldn’t take “il dolce far niente” too literally.  Could it be that Italians aren’t actually suggesting one strive to do “nothing” as much as it’s a manifesto for living with more intention, savoring the simple moments and allowing life’s rich experiences to sink in and permanently imprint in our memory?  If that’s the case, my day in Rome was not about nothing – it was in fact really all about something.

 

Toni DeBella divides her time between San Francisco and Orvieto, Italy and writes about the adventures on her blog, Orvieto or Bust (www.orvietoorbust.com) – a collection of stories and articles based on her experiences of Italy, travel and life in a small hill town in Umbria. 

2 March 2012 Uncategorized

Getting married, Italian style

Guest post by Tiffany Parks

Photographs by Luca and Antonella Cappellaro www.fineartwedding.it

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They say that difficult journeys make the destination more rewarding, and when it comes to getting married in Italy, this is doubly true. Saying “I do” in Italian is not an easy task. Oh, it’s beautiful all right, and incredibly romantic and charming, but it’s certainly not easy. Particularly if one member of the couple is not Italian.

When my Italian husband and I began planning our wedding, I had already been living in Rome for five years. I was an official resident and what with permessi di soggiorno, work visas and the unavoidable marche da bollo (tax stamps), I thought I’d seen the worst of Italian bureaucracy. I had no idea.

Turns out, Italians are terrified of bigamy. Bigamy in Italy is what terrorism is in the US: a constant threat to be prevented at all costs. And so, I lost track of the number of times I was required to swear under oath that I was not already married: at my embassy, in front of witnesses, in a signed affidavit. I even had to drag in two friends and they had to swear I’d never been married.

Then there’s the run-around. This is a brilliant Italian invention that is a great way to spend your free time (because brides-to-be have so much of that) and get to know the obscure lines of the public transport system. The run-around consists of going to one office to pick up a document, paying the fee for it at a second, filling it out at a third, signing it with witnesses at a fourth only to submit it at a fifth. Repeat ad nauseum with any number of documents.

At about this point, you start towonder why you didn’t opt to wed in the US, where couples giddily skip into the city clerk’s office two weeks prior to the big day to pick up their marriage license, prepared why they wait. One-stop wedding shopping. Instead you look over at your haggard fiancé and think to yourself, “Do I really want to marry this person? Enough to go through this hell?” And you know he’s thinking the same thing about you. But by that point, you’re in too deep. You’ve sat through Catholic marriage school and learned all about the rhythm method, the bans have been posted on the church door for the requisite two Sundays, and you’ve bought so many marche da bollo, you can forget about that down payment on an apartment. There’s no turning back now; you’re in this together.

And somehow, even though it seemed impossible, the day arrives. When you finally make it to the altar, exhausted but elated, with your partner in crime beaming at you, all the fees and hassles and lines and endless documents only make the day that much sweeter, for what you had to overcome together to get there.

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And the rest is a bonus, but what an amazing bonus! The day of our wedding the sun shone so brilliantly it seemed as if the heavens had been cracked open. Besides a few posies, the church needed no decoration. Bernini, Vasari and Sebastiano del Piombo had already taken care of that. As rice rained down on us, Rome was at our feet. It seemed that with just one leap we could land on the Palatine Hill. A walk through the narrow cobblestone alleys of Trastevere, the very first streets we walked down together, saw our first jaunt as husband and wife. Photos were snapped under festoons of drying laundry and explosions of bougainvillea that matched my scandalously pink shoes perfectly.

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Our guests were welcomed by the sinewy façade of a converted monastery by Borromini. A rich soprano voice intoned an immortal Puccini melody on a terrace with the hills of Rome in the distance. The rest was a haze of improvised brindisis, sequined dresses, scrumptious food, teary speeches, frenzied dancing and infectious laughter. The magical end of a long and at times nightmarish journey was, ironically, the beginning of an exciting new one.

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Tiffany Parks fulfilled a life-long dream by moving to Rome over seven years ago. She hails from the glorious Pacific Northwest, and has also lived in Boston and Montréal where she studied classical singing and opera. She now works as both a tour guide and a travel and culture writer and is working on her first book, an art mystery for young readers. She can be found musing about the wonders of her adopted city on her blog, The Pines of Rome. www.thepinesofrome.blogspot.com

14 February 2012 Uncategorized

Snowy Rome

photos by Alina Goroaia

We’ve been experiencing some incredible weather phenomona in Italy this past year – the most recent being the unbelievable amount of snowfall that has come down in central Italy -  Tuscany, Umbria and most surprisingly of all – Rome.  Rome hasn’t had a major snowfall in 26 years and some parts of Lazio (the region Rome is located in) haven’t seen this amount of snow in well over 50 years.  These weren’t just a few flakes, but a virtual winter wonderland which came as even more of a surprise after an unseasonably warm start to the winter seasonHere are some images captured by Beehive staff member, Alina Goroaia.  More snow is being forecast for tomorrow…..


A view of the Colosseum

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A view through the Arch of Septimus Severus in the Roman Forum

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The Roman Forum under snow

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Walking on the Lungotevere road, too icy for the sidewalk

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Along the Tiber River – Roma spelled backwards  – cute!

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Detail on the Vittorio Emanuele bridge

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These scooters aren’t going anywhere!

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Confused seagulls on the steps of St. Peter’s

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Nun and snowman in St. Peter’s square

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8 February 2012 Uncategorized